Visitor Studies Evaluator Competencies Bibliography

See these websites for other bibliographies related to visitor studies.

COMPETENCY A: Principles and Practices of Visitor Studies

Bash, S. R. (2003). From Mission to Motivation: A focused approach to increased arts participation, Metropolitan Regional Arts Council, (78).

Borun, M., & Adams, K.A. (1992). From hands on to minds on: Labeling interactive exhibits. Visitor Studies: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 115-120.

Dierking, L.D., Ellenbogen, K.M., & Falk, J.H. 2004. “In principle, in practice: Perspectives on a decade of museum learning research (1994-2004)”. Science Education, 88 (Supplement 1).

Doering, Z.D. (Ed.), (1999). Special Issue of Curator: The Museum Journal, 42(2).

Greene, J.C. & Caracelli, V.J. (Eds.), (1997). New directions for program evaluation, Vol. 74. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hood, M. G. (1983, April). “Staying Away: Why People Choose Not to Visit Museums”. Museum News, 50-57.

Knowles, M. S. (1981). Androgyny. Museums, Adults and the Humanities: A Guide for Educational Programming. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.

McLean, K. (1993). Planning for People in Museum Exhibitions. Washington, D.C.: Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC). Schauble, L., Leinhardt, G., & Martin, L. (1997). A framework for organizing a cumulative research agenda in informal learning contexts. Journal of Museum Education, 22, (2&3), 3-8.

Screven, C.G. (Ed.), (1999). Visitor Studies Bibliography and Abstracts, 4th Education. Chicago, IL: Screven and Associates.

Serrell, B. (1998). Paying attention: visitors and museum exhibitions. Washington DC, American Association of Museums.

COMPETENCY B: Principles and Practices of Informal Learning

Allen, S., Gutwill, J. Perry, D., Garibay, C., Ellenbogen, K., Heimlich, J. Reich, C. and Klein, C. (2007). Research in museums: Coping with complexity. In J.H. Falk, L.D. Dierking, & S. Foutz (Eds.), In Principle, In Practice. New York: AltaMira Press.

Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Crane, V. (Ed.), (1994). Informal Science Learning: What the Research Says about Television, Science Museums, and Community-Based Projects. Dedham, MA: Research Communications. Ltd.

Cross, J. (2007). Informal Learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways That Inspire Innovation and Performance. San Francisco: John Wiley & Son.

Falk, J.H. & Dierking, L.D. (1995). The Museum Experience. Washington, D.C.: Whalesback Books.

Falk, J.H. & Dierking, L.D. (Eds.), (1995). Public Institutions for Personal Learning: Establishing a Research Agenda. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.

Falk, J.H & Dierking, L.D. (2000). Learning from Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Friedman, A. (Ed.), (2008). Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects. Report from a National Science Foundation Workshop.
Available on-line and free at

Hein, G., (1998). Learning in the Museum. New York: Routledge.

Hein, G. & Alexander, M. (1998). Museums: Places of Learning. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.

Husen, T. & Postlethwaite, T.N. (Eds.), (1985). The International Encyclopedia of Education. New York: Pergamon Press.

Knowles, M.S. (1975). Self-directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. New York: Association Press.

COMPETENCY C: Knowledge of and Practices with Visitor Studies Research

Bradburn, N. M., Sudman, S. & Wansink, B. (2004). Asking questions: The definitive guide to questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Diamond, J. (1999). Practical Evaluation Guide: Tools for Museums & other Informal Educational Settings. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Dierking, L.D. & Pollock, W. (1998). Questioning Assumptions: An Introduction to Front-End Studies in Museums. Washington DC, Association of Science Technology Centers.

Fischer, D.K. (1997). Visitor Panels: In House Evaluation of Exhibit Interpretation. In Visitor Studies: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol. 9.

Frechtling, J. (2002). The 2002 User-Friendly Handbook for Project Evaluation: Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology Education. National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education and Human Resources. Arlington, VA. NSF 02-057. Available on-line at

Friedman, A. (Eds.), (2008). Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects. Washington D.C. : National Science Foundation.
Available on-line and free at

Hatry, H., van Houten, T., Plantz, M.C., & Greenway, M.T. (1996). Measuring Program Outcomes: A Practical Approach. Alexandria, VA: United Way of America.

Hood, M.G. (1986). Getting Started in Audience Research. Museum News, 64(3), 25-31.

Loomis, R. (1987). Museum Visitor Evaluation: New Tool for Museum Management. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History.

Korn, R., & Sowd, L. (1990). Visitor Surveys: A User’s Manual. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.

Mohr, L. B. (1992). Impact analysis for program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Patton, M.W. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation Methods. Beverly Hill, Ca: Sage Publications.

Preskill, H. & Russ-Eft. D. (2005). Building Evaluation Capacity: 72 Activities for Teaching and Training, Sage Publications.

Rubenstein, R. (1990). Focus Groups and Front-End Evaluation. Visitor Studies: Theory, Research, and Practice, vol. 3, 87-93.

Serrell, B. (1998). Paying Attention: Visitors and Museum Exhibitions. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Museums.

Sommer, R., & Sommer, B. (1980). A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research: Tools and Techniques. New York: Oxford.

Stake, R.E. (1995). The Art of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Taylor, S. & Serrell B. (Eds.), 1991. Try It!: Improving Exhibits through Formative Evaluation. Queens, NY: New York Hall of Science.

Webb, E.J., Campbell, D.T., Schwartz, R.D., & Seachrest, L. (1966). Unobtrusive Measures: Nonreactive Research in the Social Sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing.

Wells, M. & Butler, B. (2002). A Visitor-Centered Evaluation Hierarchy. Visitor Studies Today, 5 (1): 5 – 11.

Young, J. (1997). Program Evaluation: Background and Methods.

Protection of Human Subjects
A short computer-based training, from the National Institutes of Health, on protecting human subjects, one for people who are doing research and/or evaluation and one for people who are members of institutional review boards can be accessed at

The NSF web site is regularly updated with rules and references and can be accessed at:

COMPETENCY D: Business Practices, Project Planning, and Resource Management

Kellogg Foundation, (2001). Using models to bring together planning, evaluation, and action.

Miller, T., Kobayashi, M., & Noble, P. (2006, March). Insourcing, Not Capacity Building, a Better Model for Sustained Program Evaluation, American Journal of Evaluation, 83.

Screven, C.G. (1990). Uses of evaluation before, during, and after exhibit design. ILVS Review, 1(2), 36-66.

Torres, R. T. & Preskill, H. (2001). Evaluation and Organizational Learning: Past, Present, and Future, The American Journal of Evaluation, 387.

Wholey, J. (2001). Managing for Results: Roles for Evaluators in a New Management Era,” The American Journal of Evaluation, 343.

COMPETENCY E: Professional Commitment

Houle, C. O. (1980). Continuing Learning in the Professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Shettel, H. (1993). Professionalism in visitor studies: Too soon or too late? In S. Bicknell & G. Farmelo (Eds.), Museum Visitor Studies in the 90s. London: London Science Museum. Pp. 161 - 165.

Shadish, W., Newman, D., Scheirer, M.A., & Wye. C. (2004). Guiding Principles for Evaluators: A Report from the American Evaluation Association (AEA) Task Force on Guiding Principles for Evaluators. The American Evaluation Association. Available at